古典音乐早期的第一位大师——马肖 Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377)

在经历了圣咏几百年的酝育陈酿后,中世纪音乐以宗教为主题的背景上不但出现了世俗的题材,也终于吹送出第一轮大师的微微熹风——于热切的灵魂与虔诚的追求中生长出的并持续照耀未来的音乐前景的那些最精致的心灵向我们展示出他们最初的式样与风格,而给我们带来这最初的喜悦的——乃是置于一切时代都不逊色的法国人马肖。

其实,法国人在这之前的圣母院乐派中的莱奥宁与佩罗坦的复调奥尔加农中已向我们展示了第一轮大师的风采——这可能是署名音乐的最早作品,惜其传世太少,我们无法聆赏更多,且虽奥尔加农较早先的圣咏多有变化,但对我们现代的耳朵听起来仍太过高古;在马肖这里,我们却同时可以听到宗教的虔诚与世俗的灵动。

马肖首先是一个诗人,音乐似乎是他的第二“爱好”;在西方14世纪这两种艺术形式的发展中均占有重要地位。他受教于兰斯及巴黎,先是受雇于波西米亚国王约翰任秘书,1346年约翰王死后他定居于兰斯任咏经司铎至逝世于此位。终其一生,马肖始终受到法国王室的青睐;也许正因为此,他的作品(包括诗歌与音乐)被抄写在昂贵的手稿上并留传至今。

马肖的音乐语言并不一致。有些曲子有易记的旋律、规矩的乐句、强烈的节拍及清晰的和声——这些经常被演奏(演唱)及录音;但也有些曲子就不那么寻常,我们现代的耳朵听来觉得很奇怪;当然,也很有些曲子是落在两者之间的。并不是那些最简单的曲子在马肖当时最受青睐及被传抄最多;看起来倒是那些更复杂及更不寻常的作品对他的后继者更具吸引力。它们招引着他身后的法国作曲家从他已然开始的途程走向更远——即从简单的对位迈向更不协和及更不可预知的音乐语言。整体地来看马肖的作品,也许正是这些更具张力的作品形成了现代听众的先入之见——因为我们太习惯于听和谐的古典音乐作品,从而使这位大师的作品在某种程度上被“误听”了。

作为音乐家的马肖似乎是很晚才开始作曲的,在稳稳地享有诗人的名声后才开始歌曲创作。他持续不断地创作音乐直到十四世纪六十年代,这时他的风格重归简洁,显然已超越了当时音乐理论及实践的限制。在音符对音符的对位以下,却有一种结构隐含其中;马肖的音乐表层是层层叠叠的旋律装饰,这些旋律的音高彼此推动,同时它们交织缠绕在一起,直到在一个华彩乐段中织体突然澄明,而音乐这时在一段新起的歌词音节中保持着一种声音的和谐。——这段将马肖歌曲的魔力分析得非常到位。

马肖的歌词不像现代歌曲那样。那些词——当只是纯粹阅读时会是非常美及细腻的——马肖只是把它们当作音节的序列,有时聚为整体,有时只是在弥漫的音乐中作为装饰音。经常地,歌词只是作为一串人声的集合,嵌入更复杂的音乐的织体,作为不断涌动的音乐整体的一个层面。这样,我们在音乐中就不能指望找到对歌词的准确解读,因为音乐与歌词有时可能是完全不相干的。但,歌词之美与音乐之美如此相似,在此意义上,歌词与音乐一起完整构成了马肖作曲技艺作为一个整体的臻善之境。

最后,我们对马肖(G.Machaut,1300-1377)作一个简单的总结,毫无疑问他是西方音乐史上的巨人,他的圣母弥撒曲可能是最早被记录的多声部复调弥撒曲,他开创了弥撒曲中的慈悲经、荣耀经、信经、圣哉经、羔羊经作为一个整体出现的先例,但马肖的主要创作其实还不完全是这部永载史册的弥撒曲,而是他创作的大量歌曲和诗篇。除了音乐大师之外,他还是一个外交官、仆人、神职人员,更是一位游吟诗人。 马肖游历过欧洲很多城市,他收集并写作的世俗歌曲,完全不亚于圣母弥撒,甚至更为出色。话说回来,他的这部弥撒曲本身也是以情感动人而出名,但是这些歌曲集则更是美妙。马肖的文字即为音乐,唱出来即为诗歌,她们是多么的优美。马肖不仅是音乐巨人,更是文学巨匠,他的这首诗载入了法国文学史:

我诅咒时辰、光阴和白日,
还有星期、地点、月份、年龄,
以及我的贵妇那双眸子,
她的柔情剥夺我的欢欣。
我诅咒我的思想、我的心、
我的爱情、愿望、我的正直,
还有危险:
在那奇异之地
使我的心哭个不停。



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